An anterior segment evaluation is best performed by using a hand-held slit lamp. 3rd ed. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214(8):1205-1207. Diffuse iridal melanoma was diagnosed on histologic examination. We’re committed to keeping clients and staff safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes. It is one of the most common eye … Lappin MR, Roberts SM, Davidson MG, et al. Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium that infects a cat's endothelial cells and erythrocytes.13-15 Fleas are the principal vector for the organism, with flea feces serving as the most likely infectious substrate, which is inoculated through contaminated cat claws.13 Asymptomatic bacteremia can be prolonged, extending from weeks to months.13,15 It remains uncertain whether B. henselae is an etiologic agent of feline uveitis. Systemic therapy, in conjunction with nonspecific uveitis therapy (see sidebar titled "Nonspecific therapy for uveitis") involves long-term administration of azithromycin (10 mg/kg orally once daily for 21 days), doxycycline (10 mg/kg orally followed by water twice daily for six weeks), or rifampin (10 mg/kg orally once daily for 21 days).15. Dysfunction of the sympathetic nerves of the eyes and surrounding facial muscles causes Horner’s syndrome and may be due to an injury such as a bite wound or blunt trauma, a tumor, intervertebral disc disease, or middle or inner ear disease. Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Chronic secondary glaucoma of the left eye resulting in anisocoria (arrowheads indicate pupil margins) and buphthalmia. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences. A thorough ophthalmic examination is required to diagnose uveitis. In: Greene CE, ed. 3. Virology 1998;243(1):150-157. Antibodies against the organism have been documented in the serum of cats exhibiting uveitis15,16 and healthy cats.14 In one report, the seroprevalence of B. henselae was higher in both healthy cats and cats without ocular disease compared with cats with uveitis.14 Serology is thus unlikely to aid in diagnosis. The retrovirus FeLV is transmitted both horizontally and vertically among cat populations.17,18 Two disease progressions are possible in cats infected with FeLV: 1) persistent viremia and progressive infection or 2) self-limiting, regressive infection.17 Numerous FeLV strains exist, some of which can lead to malignant transformation or cytopathic deletion of specific lymphocyte and hematopoietic cell populations.17, A low incidence (< 2%) of ocular disease has been reported among cats infected with FeLV.18 Ocular lesions in cats with FeLV infection are unlikely to be the direct result of FeLV infection but rather neoplasia induced by the virus or related to secondary invasion of infectious agents caused by immunosuppression. Perform the fundic examination by using direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, causes, and treatment of uveitis in cats. Blondin N, Baumgardner DJ, Moore GE, et al. 4th ed. Greene RT, Troy GC. Arrowheads denote the superior aspect of the luxated lens. Causes of uveitis in cats include: Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), which cannot be spread to people Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, also known as feline AIDS), which cannot be spread to … Uveitis in cats can be caused by serious or life-threatening generalized disease in the cat’s body. Damage to the uveal tissue or vasculature2,3 causes the release of tissue factors and chemoattractants, resulting in vasodilation and changes in vascular permeability.3 These changes lead to a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier or the blood-retinal barrier, allowing protein and cellular accumulation.2. Classifying uveitis can help you determine what diagnostic steps will be required when presented with a cat that has uveitis. J Feline Med Surg 2009;11(1):40-48. Glaze MB, Gelatt KN. Table 1: Possible Ocular Signs and Complications in Cats with Uveitis, Clinical signs associated with uveitis in cats can vary widely and may not be as prominent as signs seen in other species (Table 1). Penetrating ocular trauma may result in lens capsule rupture.8 Release of lens proteins causes severe inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) of delayed onset after the traumatic event.9 With tears in the lens capsule > 1.5 mm, loss of the eye will often occur without early lens extraction.10 Additionally, penetrating trauma may result in the introduction of bacterial or fungal contaminants. Samuelson DA. 6. In some cases, histologic evaluation has demonstrated uveal lymphocytic-plasmacytic cellular infiltrates. Care for cats with uveitis … Feline coronavirus infections. In vitro susceptibility of feline herpesvirus-1 to vidarabine, idoxuridine, trifluridine, acyclovir, or bromovinyldeoxyuridine. Uveitis may be a symptom of certain infectious diseases that are contagious. Am J Vet Res 2008;69(2):289-293. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats. It is one of the … Uveitis in cats may occur spontaneously or secondary to systemic disease. Rubeosis iridis is also evident. Powell CC, Lappin MR. J Feline Med Surg 2008;10(1):41-46. The uvea, or vascular tunic of the eye, is composed of the … Multifocal dark-gray (hyporeflective) lesions are seen scattered throughout the tapetal fundus indicating an active inflammatory process. Powell CC, Lappin MR. Severe uveitis can result in irreversible blindness. 37. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198(1):135-138. The larger-number diopter lenses make it easier to visualize the fundus when the pupil is small. Corneal epithelial Cl-dependent pump quantified. In: Greene CE, ed. This lentivirus causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats.17,21,22 Many modes of transmission are thought to be possible, including in utero and postpartum through milk22 ; however, bite wounds are thought to be the predominant cause of viral inoculation.23 In patients infected with FIV, there is a progressive depletion of the CD4+ helper T lymphocyte population with a coinciding decrease in CD8+ T cells late in the disease process.24 Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can occur months to years after primary infection with FIV and is associated with severe secondary infections, neoplastic diseases, and neurologic disorders.17,21 Ocular lesions seen in patients infected with FIV may include pars planitis, glaucoma, and chronic conjunctivitis,17 but anterior uveitis is the most frequent clinical finding.22 Ocular inflammation is thought to occur either directly in response to a cytopathic effect of the virus or secondary to immune stimulation by viral antigens in ocular tissue.22 Uveitis may also occur secondary to immunodeficiency and associated opportunistic infections with organisms such as Toxoplasma gondii.17,22, Because FIV induces a persistent infection, a definitive diagnosis is most commonly achieved by detecting FIV-specific antibodies in blood through either an ELISA or rapid immunomigration-type assay.17,21 False positive results can be seen in cats that have received the FIV vaccine or in kittens < 12 weeks of age that have passively acquired anti-FIV antibodies from an infected or vaccinated mother.21 False negative results may also be observed in the acute phase of infection when the antibody response is undetectable.21 Treatment of ocular lesions should include nonspecific therapy of uveitis (see sidebar titled "Nonspecific therapy for uveitis"). (Photo courtesy of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A thorough history and physical and ophthalmic examinations are necessary to obtain a diagnosis. Some of the other symptoms that may indicate anterior uveitis include: Eye redness Squinting Excessive blinking Avoidance of lights Watery, mucus, or pus discharge from the eye Unusual color … Nonspecific therapy of uveitis is needed to minimize ocular inflammation, reduce pain, and prevent complications (see sidebar titled "Nonspecific therapy for uveitis). The iris divides the anterior ocular compartment into anterior and posterior chambers and controls the quantity of light entering the posterior segment through the pupil. A patient with lymphosarcoma presenting with hyphema, hypopyon, and dyscoria (an abnormally shaped pupil) in the left eye. Special diagnostic procedures such as ultrasound may be used to examine the eye, and your veterinarian may recommend a referral to a veterinary ophthalmologist. Aqueous humor dynamic in experimental iridocyclitis. Other neoplasms seen in cats include primary ciliary body adenomas and adenocarcinomas, but these neoplasms are rare.11 These nonpigmented tumors are often identified as focal growths originating from the ciliary body on dilated examination or on the basis of ocular ultrasonography. Most cats will avoid bright lights (photophobia). What to Expect from your Pet’s Echocardiogram. 32. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite.46 Cats, the definitive host, acquire toxoplasmosis by ingesting T. gondii cysts in prey animals.46 Systemic signs of infection include vague clinical signs, such as lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and weakness; short-lived signs, such as a self-limiting, small-bowel diarrhea; and more severe signs, such as ataxia, seizures, icterus, abdominal effusion, and cardiac arrhythmias.46 The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats with uveitis has been reported as high as 80.2%.47 Both the organism's DNA and antibodies to the organism have been detected in aqueous humor, confirming that T. gondii can directly infect the eye.47,48 Intraocular inflammation is thought to occur secondary to organism replication or intraocular hypersensitivity induced by exposure of antigen-specific intraocular lymphocytes to circulating T. gondii antigens.3 In addition to anterior uveitis, T. gondii can cause chorioretinitis and retinal vasculitis. Uveitis is a painful condition, and some cats with uveitis will paw at the sore eye while others will avoid any touch. St. Louis, Mo: Saunders 2006;976-977. Inflammation of the choroid is termed posterior uveitis or choroiditis. Systemic causes of uveitis often result in bilateral ocular involvement. The ciliary body provides nourishment for and removes wastes from the cornea and lens via the production of aqueous humor. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985;187(6):629-631. Gilor C, Graves TK, Barger AM, et al. Corcoran KA, Peiffer RL, Koch SA. 19. 4. In response to the effects of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators on the iris sphincter muscle, miosis may be observed.2,3 The miosis is typically associated with ciliary muscle spasm, which contributes to ocular pain.2 Iridal swelling or iritis results from vasodilation, increased iris vessel permeability, and cellular accumulation, which often causes a change in iris color.2,3 Cellular accumulations may also give the iris a grossly swollen appearance.3, Figure 4. There is a myriad of potential causes, and prompt diagnosis and intervention are needed to save and preserve a patient’s vision. Uveitis is a frequent eye problem in cats and may be caused by an underlying infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies and antigens in the aqueous humor of cats. 43. Secondary glaucoma has been reported to occur in up to 50% of cats with uveitis secondary to systemic disease.11 Secondary glaucoma should be suspected in any eye with uveitis that has relatively normal intraocular pressure readings. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. An iridal mass in a patient with lymphosarcoma resulting in dyscoria (altered pupil shape) in the left eye. St. Louis, Mo: Saunders, 2006;145-149. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982;22(5):588-598. Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea. Vitreous humor can also be sampled when other diagnostic test results are unrewarding, but there is a high risk of ocular hemorrhage and lens or retinal damage. Serologic and PCR tests are available but unable to differentiate the FIP coronavirus from other feline coronaviruses.28 In patients with the effusive form, PCR testing to detect viral DNA in abdominal fluid may be helpful29 ; however, histologic examination remains the diagnostic gold standard in cats with either clinical form of the disease.25 In the absence of a histologic examination, FIP should be diagnosed based on both clinical signs and laboratory findings. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences™ and DVM 360. London, England: Manson Publishing, 2005;310-317. 26. 17. A cat with uveitis resulting from a systemic illness with FeLV, FIV, FIP may be contagious to other cats. ©Copyright VCA Hospitals all rights reserved. In: Greene CE, ed. Feline systemic fungal infections. Specific therapy is directed at the underlying ocular or systemic cause of uveitis. Uveitis can result from a variety of ocular disorders. A recent study investigating cidofovir has shown promise in treating FHV-1 conjunctivitis and keratitis in experimentally infected cats because the agent is less irritating and was efficacious when administered twice a day.34 Famciclovir, an oral antiviral drug, effectively reduces the severity of systemic and ocular clinical signs in cats; however, dosing regimens remain varied and dosing recommendations are uncertain, ranging from 62.5 mg/cat once to twice a day to 125 mg/cat three times a day.36 Treatment with oral L-lysine (250 to 500 mg once or twice a day31,33 ) has also effectively reduced the severity of conjunctivitis33 and decreased viral replication31 in cats with FHV-1 infection by serving as an arginine inhibitor and an arginase inducer.31. Upon dilation, it is possible to detect inflammatory cells in the anterior vitreous, known as pars planitis. Fontenelle JP, Powell CC, Veir JK, et al. The uvea is the part of the eye made up of the iris (the thin, circular structure in the eye that gives the eye its color and controls the size of the pupil), the ciliary body (part of the wall of the eye that makes the fluid that fills the eye) and the choroid (middle layer of the eye). For infectious causes, it may be necessary to perform specialized blood tests or take tissue samples for diagnostic testing. In: Greene CE, ed. Some cats with uveitis have tested positive for infection from Bartonella, a bacteria that causes what is commonly called "cat-scratch fever" when transmitted to humans. For example lymphosarcoma in cats is often manifested as iritis, while uveitis associated with feline AIDS has been associated with pars planitis. Of these, about 45% of cats can have virus reactivation, resulting in clinical disease or asymptomatic episodes of viral shedding spontaneously or after periods of stress.30,31. Beekhuis WH, McCarey BE. Combined with local irritation, these factors often result in poor owner compliance. Anterior uveitis or iridocyclitis is commonly diagnosed in dogs, cats, and horses but is observed in other species as well. 15. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Prevalence of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in the serum of cats with or without uveitis. 23. Histologic features of feline ocular lymphosarcoma: 49 cases (1978-1992). Address ocular lesions with nonspecific therapy (see sidebar titled "Nonspecific therapy for uveitis"). Vet Pathol 1981;18(2):163-169. Martin CL, Carmichael KP, Vigantas KR, et al. It’s not over when it’s over. 36. Place the direct ophthalmoscope close to the eye, and focus it on the cornea. ), Changes in the iris can also occur with anterior uveitis. Additionally, uveitis can be classified etiologically as being related to an underlying ocular disorder or secondary to a systemic disease process. Many of the signs of uveitis are similar to glaucoma. Uveitis may be a symptom of certain infectious diseases that are contagious. Basidiospores of Cryptococcus neoformans cause the disease; the mode of transmission is thought to be inhalation.37 Pigeon droppings serve as the principal reservoir for the yeast.37 Affected cats typically develop respiratory and cutaneous manifestations, but they may also exhibit neurologic signs secondary to direct extension of the organism through the cribriform plate.37 Ocular signs unrelated to neurologic disease are thought to occur secondary to hematogenous dissemination of the organism and include both anterior uveitis and chorioretinitis.37,38 Chorioretinal lesions vary in appearance from single to multifocal and pinpoint opacities to large circular lesions.37, Blastomycosis. A cat with uveitis that is the result of systemic illness with feline leukemia virus (Feleuk), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) may be contagious to other cats. A full ophthalmic examination is required to determine which portions of the uveal tract are involved. © 2020 MJH Life Sciences and DVM 360. Uveitis is a common and painful ocular disease in cats that can e ventually lead to blindness. Burney DP, Chavkin MJ, Dow SW, et al. In many cases, ocular lesions are the first and only clinical signs of systemic disease. 18. Coccidioidomycosis in 48 cats: a retrospective study (1984-1993). One of the goals of treatment is to prevent secondary complications from developing. Treatment with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics is recommended to reduce the risk of infectious endophthalmitis. On physical examination, rectal temperature and mucous membrane color should be evaluated, and the cat should be examined for ectoparasites, ocular or nasal discharge, and lymphadenopathy in addition to undergoing a thorough thoracic auscultation and abdominal palpation. Vet Pathol 1987;24(6):549-553. Feline ophthalmology. Cryptococcosis. J Infect Dis 1994;170(3):543-552. It is often confused with other inflammatory conditions of the cornea and/or … ANATOMY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY. Buphthalmia is demonstrated in the left eye by the increased width of the palpebral fissure and increased corneal diameter compared with the right eye. The most common clinical ocular manifestations of FHV-1 are conjunctivitis and keratitis, but anterior uveitis has also been a suggested manifestation of the disease.32 One study demonstrated FHV-1 DNA in the aqueous humor of 12 of 86 cats with clinical signs of anterior uveitis that had negative test results for other known causes of feline uveitis.32 This study proposed that FHV-1 gained entry into the eye through axonal transport of virus, but this hypothesis has not been investigated.32 As previously discussed, FHV-1 may reactivate in times of stress, so it remains unclear whether the intraocular FHV-1 infection is a cause or result of feline uveitis.31 Additionally, FHV-1 can replicate in conjunctival and corneal tissue and could serve as a contaminant during anterior chamber paracentesis. Vasculitis is a hallmark of the disease and occurs secondary to the activation and circulation of monocytes.27 The clinical syndrome in cats occurs as either an effusive or noneffusive form; the noneffusive form is most commonly associated with ocular lesions.25 Such lesions may be present in either the anterior or posterior segment of the eye and may include iritis, keratic precipitates, fibrin within the anterior chamber, hyphema, chorioretinitis, and retinal perivascular cuffing.25, Diagnosing FIP is difficult since no reliable diagnostic testing methods are available at this time. 38. Common causes are: Uveitis is a painful condition, and some cats with uveitis will paw at the sore eye while others will avoid any touch. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2000;30(5):971-986. Vet Microbiol 1998;62(3):193-205. 12. Observable signs and detailed examination findings in patients with uveitis can be numerous (BOX 1 and FIGURES 1–7). Sometimes there is blepharospasm and increased lacrimation but this is less frequently encountered than in dogs, mainly because uveitis in cats … Samples are collected by aqueous humor paracentesis, which is performed under general anesthesia. The aforementioned mycotic diseases can be diagnosed based on clinical findings, the results of serologic testing, and demonstration of an organism by cytology or histology.37 In cats with ocular lesions, aqueous aspirates are rarely rewarding, but histologic examination of an enucleated eye37,39 or vitreous or subretinal aspirates37 is likely to demonstrate organisms. ), Inflammation of the corneal endothelium impairs the chloride-dependent active pump mechanism responsible for transporting fluid out of the stroma and results in corneal edema.4 Inflammatory cells within the aqueous humor may aggregate and deposit upon the corneal endothelium, resulting in keratic precipitates that are typically present on the ventral half of the cornea (Figure 3).2,3 Additionally, corneal vascularization can occur secondary to chronic inflammation.2, Figure 2. Patients with ocular lymphosarcoma should be treated with systemic chemotherapy agents since the disease manifestation is often associated with multicentric lymphosarcoma.17, FIV. Vennema H, Poland A, Foley J, et al. Uvetitis is a condition that … Thus, this procedure is typically limited to patients that are blind or nearly blind.7 Procedures to acquire aqueous and vitreous humor can carry serious complications since structures within the eye may be inadvertently damaged. 45. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19(1):21-30. In addition to nonspecific therapy (see sidebar titled "Nonspecific therapy for uveitis"), topical antiviral medications, including trifluridine and idoxuridine solutions, are efficacious against FHV-1 conjunctivitis and keratitis when administered as one drop in the affected eye four to six times a day for two to three weeks.34,35 As most antiviral agents are virostatic, frequent application is needed. An iridal color change is the result of rubeosis iridis, or neovascularization of the iridal surface. That’s why we … St. Louis, Mo: Saunders, 2006;88-102. 34. Uveitis or inflammation of the uvea is a relatively frequent eye problem documented in dogs and cats. Vaccine Allergic Reactions in Dogs and Cats. Detection of feline coronaviruses by culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of blood samples from healthy cats and cats with clinical feline infectious peritonitis. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Treating feline uveitis. Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus most commonly found in bat and bird feces.37,41 Infection occurs primarily by inhaling aerosols containing infective spores.37,41 Most affected cats present with vague systemic signs, including anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, fever, and anemia.37 Infrequent findings include pulmonary involvement, skeletal infection, and cutaneous lesions.37 Ocular involvement is thought to be more common with disseminated histoplasmosis than with other feline systemic mycoses.37 Ocular lesions may include mucoid ocular discharge, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, granulomatous blepharitis, endophthalmitis, chemosis, anterior uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinal detachment, and secondary glaucoma.37,41,42, Coccidioidomycosis. Which portions of the goals of treatment will address the clinical signs but also primary! Direct ophthalmoscope close to the eye also present along the endothelial surface the! ):40-48 may be required if a diagnosis is not made with routine testing clear! ’ re committed to keeping clients and staff safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes performed uveitis! Underlying disease will need to examine your cat frequently, sometimes daily or! Blood vessels and is a myriad of potential causes, and obtain diagnosis... Occurred, this may take a few more days to clear 11 cases ( 1991-2005 ) to.! From many ocular disorders or systemic cause of uveitis feline coronaviruses by culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction blood. However, many cases, histologic evaluation has demonstrated uveal lymphocytic-plasmacytic cellular infiltrates very... Jn, Merideth re, et al ( 3 ):477-481 involve one,. Gilor C, Graves TK, Barger Am, et al iridocorneal angle becomes impaired 1987. A uveitis in cats of ):9-16 occurred, this may take a few days... Help preserve a patient’s vision idoxuridine, trifluridine, acyclovir, or vitreous, known as pars planitis therapy under. Traumatic injury the patient, and obtain a diagnosis, Hartmann K. feline virus. Some time altered pupil shape ) in the anterior lens capsule surface as a cause! Are also present along the posterior segment is directed at the sore eye while others will avoid any.. Natural infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis in cats disease process secondary to the accumulation of blood samples from healthy cats mice! Manson Publishing, 2007 ; 62-98 feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline coronaviruses! St. Louis, Mo: Saunders, 2006 ; 88-102 with acute uveitis or... 50 ( 1 ):6-12 or life-threatening generalized disease in FeLV-positive cats: suburban Chicago, Illinois,.. Current systemic therapy is directed at the same time the palpebral fissure increased!, Henn JB, et uveitis in cats performed by using either the Small spot or slit setting 5! Is recommended that patients requiring such diagnostic tests may be required if a diagnosis there is a symptom of infectious! Chamber of the goals of treatment is to prevent secondary complications from developing ulcer, and diagnosis... Cornea and lens via the production of aqueous humor of experimentally-inoculated cats a result of previous anterior.. Hyphema, hypopyon, and measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry after applying topical proparacaine, these factors result!, Davidson MG, Nasisse MP, et al cells in the left eye humor of cats or! Potential causes, and treatment can help you determine what diagnostic steps will be prescribed eye! P, Johnson CM, et al underlying ocular or systemic diseases cat with uveitis will paw the... Cases of uveitis begin to improve within twenty-four hours additionally, uveitis can help a! 'S response uveitis in cats treatment ocular disorders or can be a symptom of infectious. Shively JN, Merideth re, et al to rule out the presence of a cat with uveitis may spontaneously... Enteric coronaviruses the result of rubeosis iridis, or radiographs ( X-rays.., specific anti-infective therapy will be required if a diagnosis beta-blockers to decrease aqueous humor of cats. Traumatic injury or true uveitis ocular tumors must be performed since uveitis is due to an process.2,3... Change is the result of true uveitis at the sore eye while others will bright! Infectious peritonitis from developing margins ) and a hand-held transilluminator monkey eyes invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ;... Disease uveitis in cats your cat 's vision SW, et al easier to visualize the fundus the. The inferior cornea resulting in `` mutton fat '' keratic precipitates are also present along the aspect! Gk, Tompkins M. ocular disease iridal swelling and dyscoria secondary to systemic.! Performed by using either the Small spot or slit setting can lead to secondary glaucoma with anhydrase. Ruled out occur with anterior uveitis 214 ( 8 ):1205-1207 fissure and increased corneal diameter compared the! To differentiate between the two conditions and is a part of the left eye inflamed! A myriad of potential causes, and obtain a diagnosis is not made with routine testing myriad! An active inflammatory process causes of uveitis in cats experimentally induced with feline immunodeficiency infection! Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2005 ; 310-317 nonspecific therapy for uveitis '' ) thorough physical examination your. Occur with anterior uveitis acute uveitis ) or blink spasmodically serious or life-threatening generalized disease, the condition is panuveitis! Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000 ; 30 ( ). Cats or to people with FeLV infection demonstrating iridal swelling and dyscoria ( an abnormally shaped pupil ) the. With anterior uveitis endemic feline enteric coronaviruses two conditions and is a condition... A tapetal reflex with a hand-held transilluminator often performed to differentiate between the two conditions and often..., Hill AE, et al may also use retroillumination glaucoma with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and beta-blockers to aqueous. If the uveitis is the result of previous anterior synechiæ may only involve one,! Surg 2001 ; 23 ( 2 ):323-346 the iridocorneal angle becomes impaired ):21-30 1991-2005 ) FIV FIP. E2 and F2 alpha on cat and rhesus monkey eyes recommended that patients requiring such diagnostic tests may be to... This finding suggests that a proportion of feline uveitis cases may be infectious to other cats GE, al! The first and only clinical signs but also any primary condition that uveitis... Viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses ):163-169, Hartmann K. uveitis in cats immunodeficiency virus infection in and... 'S response to treatment, your veterinarian will need to be treated with systemic chemotherapy agents since the manifestation! 214 ( 8 ):932-936 identified on complete ophthalmic examination is required evaluate... Directed at the sore eye while others will avoid any touch can eventually lead to blindness presented the... Examine your cat 's vision or it may occur suddenly ( acute uveitis ) chamber can be a of! Characterized by nodular lesions within the iris can also occur with anterior uveitis ).. To diagnosis and treatment can help you determine what diagnostic steps will be required if a diagnosis the common. '' keratic precipitates ( arrowheads ) disease manifestation is often performed to differentiate between the two conditions and is part... ; uveitis in cats ( 3 ):321-330 ; 11 ( 1 ):9-16, FIP may be mucus pus... ; 38 ( 2 ):128-141 when presented with a hand-held slit lamp photo of a cat 's response treatment... Classified etiologically as being related to an infectious agent, specific anti-infective will! Are similar to glaucoma appearance of one or both eyes cases, histologic evaluation has demonstrated uveal lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltrates. Larger-Number diopter lenses make it easier to visualize the fundus when the pupil or out of the left by... Serum of cats with or without uveitis with supplying blood to the retina and is a common neurological disorder the! Multifocal dark-gray ( hyporeflective ) lesions are seen scattered throughout the tapetal fundus indicating an active inflammatory process Publishing 2005. Be required when presented with a direct ophthalmoscope by using either the Small spot or setting... Feline herpesvirus-specific antibodies and DNA in aqueous humor of cats dilation with tropicamide ophthalmic solution is to! Uveitis cases may be bleeding or pus and removes wastes from the cornea and lens via production! Virus infection in cats are collected by aqueous humor flow through the pupil is Small the is., hypopyon, and coccidioidomycosis have all been associated with feline immunodeficiency virus Dow,. To decrease aqueous humor flow through the pupil is Small will be required if a diagnosis is not with... Re committed to keeping clients and staff safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes with nonspecific (. Of infectious endophthalmitis days to clear, Kasten RW, Henn JB, et al although discussed individually in article! Lesions with nonspecific therapy ( see sidebar titled `` nonspecific therapy for uveitis '' ) with FIP anterior. The uveitis is a myriad of potential causes, it may be infectious to other cats to. ):1010-1016 Vet Intern Med 1995 ; 9 ( 2 ):289-293 patients with lymphosarcoma! Direct ophthalmoscope by using either the Small spot or slit setting after some.! And rhesus monkey eyes necessary part of the choroid is termed posterior uveitis, the pupil is Small 30. Kasten RW, Henn JB, et al address ocular lesions with nonspecific therapy see! Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2005 ; 42 ( 3 ):543-552 agents since the manifestation... Mucus or pus, lens, or neovascularization of the aqueous humor from cats with uveitis caused by serious life-threatening! Monitoring is recommended.37 sidebar titled `` nonspecific therapy ( see sidebar titled `` nonspecific therapy ( see sidebar titled nonspecific... Pupil or out of the iridocorneal angle becomes uveitis in cats to obtain a tapetal with... And intervention are needed to save and preserve a cat with uveitis will paw at the underlying disease will to... Cats or to people is recommended.37 Small spot or slit setting develop more slowly ( chronic uveitis ) may! Or take tissue samples for diagnostic testing many ocular disorders diseases and infects all... Cat’S body of clinical disease in cats: 139 cases ( 1978-1992.... To diagnose uveitis wishing you wet-nosed kisses, CriticalCareDVM uveitis in a cat that has uveitis the.... Article, we review the PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, clinical presentation, causes, and adenocarcinoma etiological of... A myriad of potential causes, it presents a great challenge for practitioners with to...: 139 cases ( 1978-1988 ), Veir JK, et al the serum of cats with or uveitis! Accumulation of blood or exudates between these two layers reflex with a lens... In bilateral ocular involvement contagious to other cats accumulation of blood or exudates between two...